Republic of Srpska was established on January 9th 1992 and as state entity was verified by Dayton Peace Agreement and by signing Peace Agreement in Paris on December 14th 1995. This Agreement represents cease of the war lasting for three years (1992-1995) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Today, Republic of Srpska is parlamentarian republic with limited international subjectivity, and due to that reason it fulfills its interests through mutual authorities at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina which is internationally recognized state. Since 2003, the capital of Republic of Srpska and the biggest city is Banja Luka with over 200.000 citizens. Banja Luka also represents administrative, economic and cultural center of Republic of Srpska.
Geographical and demographical data
Territory of Republic of Srpska is located between 42° 33 ' and 45° 16 ' of north geographic latitude and 16°11 ' and 19 ° 37 ' east geographic longitude. Republika Srpska occupies 25053 square km or 49% of territory of Bosnia and Harzegovina with population of 1.391.503, which puts RS among the smallest European countries.
Republic of Srpska is located at the contact of two great natural-geographical and socio-economic regional units-Panonian and Mediterranean. Its position, in traffic-geographical sense, has significant importance due to the fact that vital communication routs run through it. It refers, in the first place, to meridian direction which, with mutually connected river valleys of the Bosna and Neretva, going through Dinarske mountains, connects Central European and Mediterranean macro-regions. Of no lesser importance is the direction which connects Republic of Srpska with central Balkan and Western European space. In that sense, it is very important to emphasize place of Republic of Srpska on the river Sava by which it is connected with European river route Rhine-Main-Danube. The area of Republic of Srpska represents link between Panonian and Adriatic areas from one side and Western European and Central Balkan areas from the other.
Total length of Republic of Srpska border is about 2170 km, of which 1080 km refers to the boundary with the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. If the territory of the Republic of Srpska, would be placed in the form of a circle, the total length of its borders would be only 561 km. This means the coefficient of dispersal limits of 3.6, which is rare in the world.
Natural features of Republic of Srpska are very complex, because it belongs to different natural geographic units and their geomorphologic evolution.
Geo-morfologically, there are different shapes in the area of Republic of Srpska. In the north peripanonian part, hills are made of kenosoic sediments which gradually become flat with river valleys in them. This flat part is the most fertile part of Republic of Srpska. There can be found only few solitary mountains: Kozara, Prosara, Motajica, Vucijak and Trebavac and north-east parts of Majevica mountain. Going south, flat areas become mountains which occupy the most of the Republic of Srpska space.
Different climate influences which can be felt in the area of Republic of Srpska are results of natural elements and laws of general circulations of air masses in the wider space. Northern peripanonian part belongs to the mild continental climate where climate influence from the north can be felt. Summers are worm and winters are mostly moderately cold. The average year temperature is above 10°C. Precipitations are mostly equally distributed throughout a year, but it mostly rains when it is needed (May, June). The amount of precipitations declines going from the west (1500 mm) to the east (700 mm) due to the influence of western air circulation. Mountain and mountain-valley variant of climate influence can be felt in the most part of Republic of Srpska. Huge mountains have mountain climate type with fresh short summers and long cold winters with snow. It snows a lot and snow can be high above 1 200 mm. Areas with hills and valleys have milder climate. Its main features are average hot summers and very cold winters with average year temperature below 10°C
The south part of Republic of Srpska, the area of Herzegovina (Humine) has changed variant of Adriatic climate, while the area of Rudine has the climate type between Adriatic type and mountain climate type. Climate of Humine is characterized by very hot summers and very mild winters. The average year temperature is from 11° to 14°C. The distribution of precipitations is not good and it rains mostly in autumn and winter with very little rain in summer when drought appears. Rain is dominant over snow. Climate of Rudine is characterized by lower summer temperatures and snow during winter.
From the hydrological aspect, the area of Republic of Srpska can be described as relatively rich with surface water and ground water networks. All major rivers belong to Black Sea basin. The backbone of the Black Sea basin is the flow of the River Sava to which other rivers flows –Una with Sana, Vrbas, Ukrina, Bosna and Drina. All of them have huge hydro-energetic potential. In that sense, the river Drina is of great importance and it has the most developed hydrologic system but huge hydro-energetic potential still is not employed enough. Other rivers also have great potential but they do not belong to Republic of Srpska completely. The exception is the river Ukrina.
Hydrographic network of Republic of Srpska completes the biggest and the most important river of Serb Herzegovina-Trebisnjica, which hydrographic potential is completely valorized. It belongs to Adriatic basin. Rivers of Republic of Srpska represent important part of tourism. It especially refers to mountain water which is clear and full of fish.
There are also several thermo-mineral springs which are very important for healing and tourism. Also there are several natural and accumulative lakes in Republic of Srpska.
Especially valuable are the hydrological potential of the thermal and thermo-mineral water. Numerous studies have shown considerable number of them and the largest ones are in the northern part of the Republic of Srpska, in the Sava zone trench. These sources are usually found at depths of 1,000 to 3,000 m with temperatures between 80 ° and 150 ° C. Based on these waters, several spa and recreation centers already work: Banja Vrućica, Mljecanica, Laktasi, Slatina, Srpske Toplice, Guber and Vilina Vlas. Valorization of the full extent of this kind of hydrological potential should be done only in due time.
Vegetation of Republic of Srpska is characterized by variety which is the result of climate conditions. Forest complex is very important. Dominant type of trees is oak tree. In the north, near Sava, there can be found red oak and hornbeam. Going south, in mountain region beech trees can be found also. Red oak and hornbeam are also types of trees in Serb Herzegovina.
Narrow zone of upper Podrinje and low Herzegovina are characterized by vegetation of oak and ash, while in the region near Foca and Visegrad cerris trees can be found.
On the highest mountain region there are beech forests and fir trees. Also there are maple and elm trees. Beech forests are more dominant in eastern than in western parts of Srpska.
Inside the area of forest vegetation there are meadows and pastures very important for livestock. Vegetation of Republic of Srpska is very interesting from the point of endemic types and Pancic’s spruce can be found in the valley of Drina (rain forest Perucica near Foca).
are key factors in the present and future development of RS. The most important natural potentials are: agricultural areas, wood, hydro-climate conditions, and mineral resources. Agricultural areas, as a strategic potential, represents very relevant resource ant it has very important place among natural resources in Republic of Srpska for its development. Usability of agricultural areas is different and it is based on the fact that different areas are parts of different morphological units.
The total area of agricultural land in RS is 1.250.000 hectars, comparing with the population it means that 1 hectar goes on 1 citizen. And that is above world standard. There is enough agricultural space in Republic of Srpska and it is possible to get some more. If we are speaking about usage of the agriculture areas, the majority goes on plough-land, and gardens, then pasture, meadow, orchard and the least ponds.
Rational usage of this strategically important potential with application of modern agrotechnical measures and inner production structuring conditions not only for own needs, but for wider production for market can be created. Wood always represents national wealth and it is one of the basic potentials of the present and future economic development of Republic of Srpska.
Кад на пут кренеш и нама дођеш
племенитом нашом Српском прођеш,
С тобом на том путу биће
природе зов, древне културе и традиције ков.
Немирни Врбас, ледена вода
понос и дика крајишког рода,
Кастелу крени, дајаком плови
у стољетним алејама бањалучки снови.
Мањача и Козара, поносне горе
оковане ноћи, слободне зоре,
А на другој страни Српске наше
у горским очима огледају се Ваше.
Високи Маглић, планинарски сан
у поход позива на Свети Видовдан.
Требиње, тај духом испуњен град,
у којем је Дучић оставио траг,
На југу нашу духовност чува,
обасјани Тврдош и Грачаница му друга.
Кад зима дође Јахорина забијели,
њоме корачају слободни и смјели.
На истоку самом, као са висина
плаховита Тара и бескрајна Дрина,
Ћуприја на њој камена стоји,
Андрићева муза вијекове броји.
Мало је ријечи, јер је прелијепа вила,
таква је СРПСКА одувијек била.